Brief summary of my approach to name giving to varieties of bird species based upon the trinomial system
Account for the approach of name giving in this website
Scientific names based upon the binomial system.

The system of scientific name giving has been developed in1735 by Linnaeus. He introduced the binominal system. In this system every bird species has been given an unique name. Species are grouped into higher categories called genera (singular: genus) based on shared characteristics.

Genera are grouped into families, families in orders, orders into classes, etc. In this way a hierarchical classification system came into being. The species are the lowest category in the classification.

The binominal name gives a proper identification of the species and the place within the hierarchical system.

Example: The first Australian parrot described by Linnaeus was the Rainbow Lorikeet. Scientific name: Psittacus haematodus (1771).

The name of the genus was changed by Vigors and Horsfield (1826) into the name Trichoglossus.

The categorization of this species by Forshaw:

Species: .................haematodus.......... Genus: ............ .....Trichoglossus,...... Subfamily:........... Loriinae............... Family: ..................Loriidae............... Order:.....................Psitticaformes......

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"Trinomial nomenclature is a naming system that extends the standard system of binomial nomenclature by adding a third taxon. It is used in biology when the organisms within a species fall into separate groupings that need to be distinguised"

The system is used for growing cultivated varieties of plants (cultivars) The scientific name of a plant is followed by the name of the cultivar.

The International code for the nomenclature of cultivated plants (1953) is accepted and has been implemented by hobbyists and professionals.

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Common or local names

Hundreds of years people were giving names to birds in their own neighborhood. Most of the names were colour names. Sometimes this local names are very confusing. Example: In England the name Robin was used for a little tame bird with a red-brown chest. (Erithacus rubeacula). In America the same name Robin was used for a much bigger red fronted bird (Turdus migratoris) Robin is a local name. Most of the local names are typifying the song, the behavior or the colour of the species. Local name giving is never systematic name giving.

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Mutation, mutation factor and colour variety.

These three terms refer to three different phenomena

Mutation: "A mutation is an unplanned, un-expected, spontaneous change of a gene" (T.G.Taylor, Genetics for Budgerigar breeders" (1961, pg 47)

Mutation factor: It is an altered gen, localized at a chromosome, usually encoding a protein or RNA, whose inheritance can be followed experimentally

Colour variety: It is the new appearance of the species a new phenotype

Sometimes the term mutation is used as an "umbrella term" by breeders and writers.

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"The study of identification, nomenclature and classifi-cation of objects is called taxonomy ", Bill Fountain in Plant nomen-clature.

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Albinism bij kanaries, Inte Onsman Mutavi Research Groep

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Scientific methods of name giving of genes

Some quotations:

"When a gene is known only by mutant phenotype, the gene is given the name and symbol of the first identified mutant"

"Once the gene responsible for the phenotypic variation is identified, this gives the primary name of the gene".

"The majority of gene names will be for structural genes that encode protein. The gene should as far as possible the same name as the protein".

"A gene name should be specific conveying the character or function of a gene. The name should be brief, not conveying detailed information. This we find in publications and databases. The prime function of a gene name is to provide an unique identifyer".

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First draft of a survey of names for mutated genes based upon the change of function of the genes

M-r ( r=reducing of the pro-duction)

M-e (e=enhancing of the melanin production)

M-i (i=interruption of the production)

M-t+ (t+=tyrosinase positive)

M-t- (t- = tyrosinase negative)

M-w (w=wrack of dendrites)

M-s (s=shortage of germ cells)

M-d (d=distribution pattern)

M-g (g=grouping of the melanin.granules)

M-f (f=format,form of the melanin granules)

M-o (o=oxidation of the melanin granules )

S-s (s=structural change)

S-r (r=refinement sponge layer)

S-f (f=finest sponge struc-ture)

S-t (t=total destruction of the blue structure)

S-p (p=partial destruction of the blue structure)

S-d (d= deviation of the skin)

S-v (v=vacuoles enlargement)

P-r (r=reduction pigment production)

P-t (t=total reduction of the pigments)

P-m (m= minimal production)

P-e (e= enhanced formation)

P-s (s= schizo chromatism)

P-p (p = partial lacking pigment)

P-d (d= distribution of pigments)

Literature: MGI publi-cation "Rules for Nomenclature of genes." jan 2005 Trinomial nomenclat-ure-Wikipedia 22-1-2005

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Scientific name giving to bird species

Example of scientific name giving

When I started with breeding Bourke parrots I found in handbooks two different scientific names. Forshaw used the name: Neophema bourkii. Immelmannn used the name Neopsephotus bourkii.

Forshaw divided the genus Neophema in three distinct groups of species: 1. N.bourkii, with a brownish and rose plumage as the most distinctive characteristic. 2. N.chrysostoma, N.elegans, N.petrophylia and N.chrysogaster with a green back, a yellow front, blue wing coverts and a blue frontal band. 3. N.pulchella and N.splendida with extensive blue markings and red colour at the wings respectively the chest. This sub division of the genus by Forshaw was based upon characteristics of the plumage.

Immelmann followed the view of Von Boetticher. The Bourke belongs to a distinct genus, called Neophephotus. The argumentation was: Differences found in colouring of the plumage, the format and behaviour of the species. He mentioned the fact that hybridizing between Bourke and a Neophema species has never been reported. The genus Neopsephotus is a mono typic genus. This means that this genus is only represented by one species. Also the Cockatiel and the Budgerigar are categorized in a mono typic genus too.

The name of the species: bourkii, has been derived from the name Bourke given by Sir Thomas Mitchell. He named the Bourke after Sir Richard Bourke. The species was discovered in New South Wales in1835.

What is better? The classification of the Bourke by Forshaw (genus Neophema, a sub division, apart from the other six Neophema species) or Immelmann ( a distinct mono typic genus: Neopsephotus) These are different classifications, but close to each other.

Decisive argument: In recent years new biochemical techniques have become available for the analysis of species specific proteins. They provide precise objective data. The research "Biochemical systematic of parrots", by the S.C.I.R.O., the Australian University and Victoria Museum, decided the discussion in advantage of the genus name: Neopsephotus. By research unique proteins in the Bourke species were found. They were not found in species of the Neophema genus.

Conclusion: In this example Forshaw used arguments referring to the colouring of the plumage, Boetticher and Immelmann added arguments suggesting differences in the genetical make-up of the species counting for the impossibility of hybridization. Scientific research produced the decisive argument. The Bourke has different proteins, counting for the expression of the genes.

Scientific name giving to varieties of bird species

Naming varieties

Breeders of varieties are often excellent observers. When a new colour attracts the attention ,they are the people who preserve the mutation and establish the new variety, . Taylor said "The first appearance of a mutation may not indicate its full possibilities. Sometimes it produces only a small change in the variety in which it first appears". A colour variety that shows the full expression of the gene is dependent on the skillful development of the variety by an experienced breeder. This costs a lot of time and patience. These breeders coined the names of the varieties. After this the name is used by breeders and bird societies and the name is used in bird magazines, at exhibitions and the bird market .

Binomial names for bird species

There are two pillars upon which scientific name giving in the binomial system is build. The name of the species is an unique name. It refers to differences between species. The name of a genus refers to the similarity of bird species. Therefore the binomial name is an useful name for identifying and classification of species. Species is the lowest level of the hierarchical classification.

Trinomial names for varieties

What is a variety? A species can vary in form, format, colour, etc. A colour variety is a new appearance of the species, that comes into being by mutation of one of the genes that is controlling the formation of pigments or feather structure. A variety has two different aspects, the new phenotype ( colour variety or new appearance of the species) and the new genotype (new genetical make-up of the species). The new genotype consists of the altered gen and the other, not-changed genes or the species.

For scientific naming and classification of varieties we have to develop a subdivision of the species, a new lower level in the hierarchy. It is possible to expand the binomial system to a trinomial system. This has been done before in scientific name giving for varieties of plants. For a proper identification of varieties of bird species we can use the scientific name of the species followed by the name of the variety. Together it forms a trinomial scientific name. In my website this system of scientific trinomial name giving has been developed.

An important problem is the naming of the third part of the scientific trinomial name. For naming the choice goes between a name referring to the new phenotype or a name referring to the new genotype. We have to make demands on scientific names. They have to fullfill the following scientific aims: 1. Identification of a variety 2. Classifi-cation varieties in a hierarchical system. 3. Tracing and naming parallel varieties in different bird species. 4. Supporting communication on the national and interna-tional level.

This new approach of scientific name giving should be seen as innovation. Acceptance of scientific names is the first step. Implementation of the new kind of name giving is a second step. The new approach can succeed only when it is rewarding for breeders. Explanatory scientific names can be a resource of knowledge for variety breeders. An important side effect of using scientific names will be the dissemination of knowledge about colour formation processes.

Colour names and scientific name giving

According to the binomial system of Linnaeus and his followers, it is useful to make difference between common names and scientific names. My assumption is that the name giving of a new variety has much in common with the local name giving. Some of the shared characteristics with common names are: 1. Most names for varieties are colour names. The list of representative Budgerigar varieties (Taylor, 1961) contains thirty varieties. Twenty two varieties have a colour name, The remaining eight names are descriptions of the appearance: Pied, in three different varieties, Fallow , in two different varieties, Crested, Lacewing, and Clearwing. In other species we see the same trend. 2. Sometimes the name of a variety refers to the name of fruits: apple green, apricot, or stone: slate, or semi-precious stones, jade and opal, or precious metals, gold and silver. Example of common names for species: Golden Pheasant, Silver Pheasant. 3. Sometimes different varieties became the same name. Example: lutino. 4. It is possible that a same variety gets a different name in different countries also. Example: Isabel and cinnamon. 5. The name is given in the mother language. Therefore the name is bound to a language, a country or a region and need translation for use in international communication.

My conclusion is that names for varieties given in the aviculture are comparable with common names for bird species.

Achieving scientific aims like identification, comparing and classification with the help of colour names is very problematic. Proper identification of varieties by comparing the colour, is possible when we limit this to one species. But even in the Budgerigar species it was difficult to find unique names. Names like pied and fallow had to be supplemented by the names of the country of origin and the inheritance of the variety. Comparing varieties of different species, based on colour, is very difficult. Example: Even when we compare two blue varieties, for example the blue variety of the Princess of Wales and the blue variety of the Pale-headed Rosella, we find a lot of differences in colour distribution, brightness and colour intensity. Classification of colours can not be precisely also. We can categorise them only in broad categories: black and white, red and yellow, blue and green, etc. Colour names need translation. With the help of colour names we can not reach scientific aims.

Colour names and scientific names fulfil different functions.

Common names are playing a very important role in the communication in a given country or language area.We can not go without them in the communication between hobbyists, in bird societies, in articles in bird-magazines, at exhibitions, in buying and selling at the market place. Breeding and developing varieties is a hobby. But without a financial stimulus the hobby should not have attracted so much fanciers. I can understand that some breeders do prefer an attractive name above a proper descriptive name. Scientific names are needed for exact identification and categorization based upon similarities and differences. Scientific names serve the international communication. We cannot demand from common names the same as from scientific names. Both names are useful. We can not abandon common names and replace them by scientific names.

We can compare the use of common and scientific names for varieties with the use of common and scientific names for bird species. Breeders in different countries are using different names for bird species. An example is the Budgerigar, (English) The name Budgerigar has been derived from the Aboriginal name: Bethcheryygah. The same species is named differently in different languages :Wellensittich (German) Grasparkiet (Dutch), Perruche ondulee (France) etc. The scientific name: Melopsittacus undulatus is used in international communication. The example of scientific namegiving of species can learn us that there will be no problem when next to the common names for colour varieties scientific names are available.

My conclusion is that common and scientific names have their own merits. In every Birds Guide we find common names and scientific names for bird species together.

Name of the mutation factor and scientific name giving of varieties

When we analyze the subject variety we find three different terms. Mutation, mutation factor and colour variety. Breeders use the term mutation as an "umbrella term" Also a lot of writers use the term "mutation" this way. But a variety is not a mutation. All three terms refer to different aspects of same subject: variety. Each term has a special meaning. Making a sharp distinction between them is necessary. Using the term "mutation" for all of them can cause a hindrance for a proper approach of scientific namegiving..

Earlier writers like Watmough, Immelmann, Duncker, Steiner, Mendel and Darwin made a sharp distinction of mutation factor and colour variety. Steiner used two kinds of names for varieties: "Farbspielarten" (German = colour varieties) and "Bildungsfaktoren" (German = colour production factors).Colour varieties were divided in "Grundvarietäten" (basic varieties) and "Kombinationsvarietäten" (combination varieties). For the colour varieties he used common colour names given by breeders. For the mutation factors he used Latin names. Steiner found the perfect solution for the use of colour names and scientific names. For scientific aims like identification and classification and naming parallel varieties he used the "Bildungsfaktoren", not the "Farbspielarten". Because colour names are not suited for scientific aims it will be better to use the name for the mutation factor for identification of the variety. In this case we have to know what the relation is between both aspects.

Relationship between mutation factor and colour variety

If we want to use the mutation factor for namegiving the variety we have to find out what the relationship is between the mutation factor and the colour variety. This relation is very complex. The relationship can be portrayed as a chain of cause-result relationships. The mutation causes a change of a gene: the function of the gene in the colour formation is changed. This has a specific effect on the colouring of the plumage, the skin and hornparts and sometimes on the eyes. Combined with the effect of the other, unchanged, colouring genes a new appearance is the result. Putting this together:

Mutation - mutationfactor - altered colour formation - special effect of the gene - combination effects of mutated and not-mutated genes- a new colour variety

1. Choosing the colour variety as an identifyer for the variety: What is the reason of the unequality of the colour varieties? The main reason is the fact that the genetical make-up of each species is different. Each bird species is unique. Each colour variety is unique also. In loss-mutations, like the total loss of the melanin pigments the result is attributed to the remaining, not-mutated genes of the species. Example: Lutino Bourke or Rubino Galah. In loss-mutations like the partial loss of psittacine pigment, the result is attributed to both, mutated and not-mutated genes. Example: Seagreen Scarlet-chested. In a winn-mutation like the refinement of the sponge layer is the result attributed to the mutation factor alone. There is another difficult problem. One of the main scientific goals is the naming of the parallel mutations. There is a parallel muta-tion in the Budgerigar and the Cockatiel. Example: There is a total loss of psittacine pigments. The result is a blue Budgerigar and a Whiteface Cockatiel. What name gets the mutation factor. Blue? or Whiteface? When we choose the name Blue we choose the Budgerigar species as a model. The name Blue does not suit well for the variety of the Cockatiel. The Cockatiel does not have feathers with a blue structure. We can not expect a blue colour variety. The genetic make-up of both species is different. Parallel mutations came into being in all brown and multicoloured birds. The choice of the Budgerigar as a model restricts the namegiving of parallel mutations in other order than Psitticaformes. Naming of parallel mutations has to be an universal applicable approach.

2. Choosing the mutation factor as an identifyer of the variety. When we choose for the mutation factor there are three possibilities: 1. The genetic factor, 2. The change in a colour formation process, 3. The special effect of the mutated gen.

The role of scientific research in naming varieties

Steiner Scientific research was the base on which he named the functional change of the genes. Example: The olive Budgerigar is studied by Steiner and Duncker. Duncker assumed that an enhancement of phaeomelanin pigment production was the cause. Steiner assumed that a refinement of the blue structure could explain the variety. When it was clear that parrots do not have phaeomelanin pigment and that the refinement of the structure of the little keratin channels in the sponge layer was the real cause, the discussion ended on behalf of Steiner. This mutation factor was a structural factor not a melanin pigment factor.

Steiner developed a classification system based upon the altering formation of pigments and feather structure. In his classification he used three categories: M (melanin), L(lipochrome) and S(structure) factors. Each category was divided in subcategories. His classification was based upon "Parallel Variations" in all bird species. Naming, identification, and classification were aspects of one taxonomic approach.

Mutavi: Recent research about melanin formation gives a very interesting example of a melanin mutation factor which counts for the disappearance of black eumelanin pigment in the eyes, the horn parts and the plumage of the Budgerigar. The common name for the colour variety is Lutino. The causal factor, found by researchers of the Mutavi group, is the inactivity of the enzyme tyrosinase. Colouring of the eumelanin granules, that will be deposit in the feathers, beak and nails, skin and the retina of the eye is an important part of the formation process of the black pigment. The inactivity of this enzyme prevents the colouring of the eumelanin granules. Colourless granules can not colour the feathers. Mutavi called this tyrosinase negative.

The same inactivity of tyrosinase works out in another way in the plumage of the Canary. The Canary has two kinds of melanin, eumelanin and phaeomelanin. Eumelanin counts for the black pigment. Phaeomelanin counts for the red brown pigment. Part of the formation process of the phaeomelanin is the same as the eumelanin formation. But there is an important difference. In the pigment synthese of the phaeomelanin the aminoacid cysteïne plays a role. Mutavi found that the formation of red brown phaeomelanin is less dependent on the activity of tyrosinase as the eumelanin. When the eumelanin pigment is lacking a new phaeo colour variety of the Canary is the result. This is an interesting example how a parallel mutation works out in a different species. Several causes for changing or distortion of the formation process of melanins are found by research of the Mutavi group.

In the Canary both pigments are playing a role. A contour feather of the green Canary has red-brown phaeomelanin in the margins and black eumelanin in the centre of the feather. The eyes and the down feathers only have eumelanin. In the variety the black eumelanin lacks but the redbrown melanin is a bit bleached. The result is a light plumage with a redbrown pattern. The eyes are red, the down is white. A phaeo colour variety comes into being.

Conclusion: The scientific name of the mutation factor can be based upon the outcomes of scientific research. In this case the cause is discovered. When the name of the mutated gen to the binomial name of the species is added, a complete identification is possible. By the name of the species the possesion of colouring genes is known. By the name of the mutation factor the change of one of the colouring genes is known. Such a trinomial name forms a complete identification of the variety of a species.

In this approach of name giving of bird varieties there is a parallel with scientific naming of bird species. The scientific name is not derived from the common name but is referring to other aspects than colour. In the beginning namegiving was based on characteristics like shape, size, structure and colour. In recent years biochemical techniques has become available for the analyses of species specific proteins

In this approach of name giving of bird varieties there is a parallel with scientific naming of bird species. The scientific name is not derived from the common name but is referring to other aspects than colour. In the beginning namegiving was based on characteristics like shape, size, structure and colour. In recent years biochemical techniques has become available for the analyses of species specific proteins.

Scientific approach of name giving of mutation factors

There are two scientific methods: The name of the mutation factor is named after the colour variety or named after the function or character of the gene. The first approach is used when a gene is known only by the mutant phenotype. In other cases, when the gene reponsible for the variety is identified , this gives the primary name of the gene. In the book of T.G.Taylor and C.Warner: "Genetics for Budgerigar breeders"(1961) the first method is used. In this method the mutation factor gets the same name as the new phenotype. In this book the name giving is restricted to the varieties of one bird species, the Budgerigar.

Namegiving of varieties in different bird species: The approach of Taylor is applied in other birdspecies. The consequence was that other colour names arised. Sometimes different names for the same mutation factor. The use of colour names proved to be inadequate for naming of parallel mutations. The same mutation factor has to be named the same. Because bird species have an unique packet of genes is was inevitable that sometimes the same parallel gene became different colour names.

The model: I asked myself if the Budgerigar species can function as a model. I wonder if it is correct to apply the colour names of the varieties of the Budgerigar to bird species with other colouring elements.Every model is accentuating some aspects of reality and reducing other aspects. Examples of reduction: The Budgerigar does not have red pigment like the Galah. The effect can be that there is to little attention for red pigment formation. The Bourke has red and yellow pigment. There is little attention for the phenomenon that in the pastel coulor variety yellow pigment can be full replaced by red pigment, without selection by the breeder. The Budgerigar does not have brown eumelanin pigment. There is little attention for the influence of this brown pigment on colour varieties of the Bourke. Example of accentuation: The Budgerigar has feathers with blue structure. The model represents green species. When this colouring element is lacking in species like the Cockatiel, this can be overlooked in the name giving. In discovering and naming parallel mutations in brown and multicoloured birds this model shows its limitations. The model cannot be used for birds of another order than Psitticaformes. In this way the model restricts the scientific aim.

My choices: I did choose the mutation factor as the identifyer of the variety. Deriving the name of the mutation factor from the change of the function of a gene can be a good solution of the name giving problem. Names are based upon research findings. Information can be found in scientific publications. Most research papers are written in English technical language. This is serving the international communication. Name giving of genetic factors, based upon common names of the phenotype, cannot be the best solution of the namegiving problem. All the problems of common colour names are reïntroduced in scientific naming. The problem of colour names is specific for bird varieties. Not for animals, plants, insects or viruse. Colour names are not suited for scientific aims.

The publications of Steiner confirmed my conviction that the name of the variety should refer to the change of the function of the genetic factor. By this altered factor, a part of a colour formation process is altered When the variety is identified by a scientific name of the mutation factor the name refers to the explanation of the new variety. Several research papers of Mutavi strengthened my assumption that there is enough knowledge of formation processes and knowledge of causes of altering of formation processes to find explanatory names. Naming varieties in this way can be of an enormous help in dissemination of scientific knowledge under breeders.

Summary of the new approach of name giving

In this website I developed the approach of a trinomial system of name giving of varieties of bird species. The name giving is based upon the change in the genotype of the species. The function change of one of the genes is typified by two symbols. One letter refers to the formation of pigment or feather structure. In parrot species these are: melanin (M), psittacine (P) and structure (S). The second letter is the indication of that part of the formation process that has been changed. The letter refers to the real cause. This code, placed between parenthesis, is added to the binomial name of the species. Example: Neopsephotus bourkii (M-d) In this way a trinomial name is given to the variety. This name can be used for scientific goals: identification, classification and namegiving to parallel varieties. This name is suited for communication on the national and international level.

01. Identification. The trinomial name is an unique name for the variety. This name refers to the cause of the colour change of the variety and is based upon research findings. There is a lot of knowledge about the formation processes of formation of the melanins and feather structure. In many cases the specific cause of the change or distortion of the formation process. A lot is known about the carotenoid pigments. Less is known about the psittacine pigments. But there is a provisional solution. When the exact cause is not discovered yet the name can be derived from the effect of the colour formation change. Total loss of pigment, etc. This system of name giving can be used for every bird species.

02. Classification. The same mutation factor in different bird species gets the same name. Because the name is referred from the altered function of a gen, and not from the colour of the variety, classification of the factors is possible. I used a revised classification system from Steiner.

03. Explanation. The name of the factor can be short. Inheritance, origin, and other data can be left out. The name refers to research results and data bases. In this way it is possible to disseminate scientific knowledge among breeders, who are interested in colour formation processes and genetic backgrounds.

04. International communication is guaranteed .Names of mutation factor are derived from scientific research. Research papers are published in English. The Latin name for the species followed by an English name of the mutation factor is technical English and don't need translation.

05. Colour names are not abandoned. Just as in the binomial system the local names are used next to the scientific names. Local names fulfill an important role within the communication in the mother language. There will be no translation problem. Using uniform English names is not needed because the common name is no longer the most important identifyer. Breeders who does not speak the English language are not set aside Only for scientific identification and classification the technical English name is used.

06. Restricting the name giving to a given order or family of birds (like Psitticaformes) is not needed. The namegiving can be used for all varieties in all bird species. In the introduction of new kind of varieties in new bird species, the factor can be classified in a new category if needed .

07. New namegiving should be treated as an innovation process. This approach can encourage fast adoption. A colour name is not suited for scientific aims like identification and classification. The colour names are not abandoned. They are used for local communication. Implementation of scientific names is easy because it is an extending of a n accepted and known system. The use of explanatory names are a resource for breeders and is serving the dissemination of scientific knowledge. In this way a bridge can build between practice and research between hobbyist and scientist.

08. The use of colour names for scientific naming is conform their meaning. There are no semantic problems. This problem is unique for bird species, because the common name of the species and the common name of the varieties are often both colournames.

09. The use of this approach is dependent on the results of research. I think that a good start can be made because there is a lot of knowledge about formation of melanin pigments and feather structure. The knowledge of psittacin pigments is not complete. But there is also a lot of knowledge about carotenoid pigments

10. Examples of trinomial scientific names: The scientific name of the mutation factor is placed behind the binomial name and placed in parenthesis. Example: Neopsephotus bourkii (M-d) M = eumelanin, d = distribution of the melanin pigment. Common name: Opaline Bourke. Combination of varieties in the same bird species is represented by a abbreviation between parenthesis of the two mutation factors. Example: Melanopsitticus undulatus (M-d, P-t). Blue Opaline Budgerigar is the common name. The effect of this combination on the plumage is a total loss of the yellow pigment combined with an other distribution of the melanin in the plumage.

The approach to scientific namegiving of bird varieties is based upon a trinomial system. The identity of the variety is specified by the binomial name of the species followed by the scientific name of the mutation factor. This forms a scientific trinomial name. The name of the mutation factor refers to the change of the function of the gene, not to the change of the appearance. The name is based upon research finding, can be classified and used for naming parallel mutations. This approach is suited for all varieties of all birdspecies, irrespective the different possession of colouring genes of the bird species.

Copyright 2005 by Bob Fregeres

E-mail address: fregeres@bourkes-parakeet.nl

1/24/06