Proteins

Relation between genes and proteins

characteristics of the organism.

Genes are influencing the characteristics of an organism, but indirect. The genes are the buildings plans of albumen (proteins). Proteins are formed after the information that is stored in the genes. And these are determining the characteristics of the organism. Proteins are very important because they are involved in nearly all the processes in the cells and in the body.

Formation of the proteins

The first step is copying of a gene. Three letter-pairs are copied. Because of the development of a protein only a small part of the chromosome is copied, stored for a while in RNA and brought outside of the kernel of the cell. Only that part of the total information packet, that is needed for the production of the protein is copied. With the information of the RNA a specific protein is made. When the gene is changed, the protein that has to be made is changed too. One by one the genes can be turned on and turned off. The gene is turned on when it is needed. For instance to produce tyrosinase. The gene is copied. Then the gene is turned off.

There are some pairs of letters that are marking the beginning and the end of a gene. A start and stop gene. The start gene is AUG, the stop gene is UAG, UGA or UAA.

There are a lot of different proteins. Every protein has his own function. The proteins are realising the building plans. This building plans are specific for the organisme and so are the proteins.

Some examples of proteins

Proteins, named enzymes, are regulating chemical reactions in the body.

Proteins play a prominent part in cell division and fertilisation. The DNA polymerise, a special protein, is formatting new chromosomes.

Proteins regulate the transport of chemical substances, like oxygen. Blood contains haemoglobin. This is a protein. Haemoglobin contains iron atoms who are binding oxygen (O2) from the air to CO2. The haemoglobin takes up the oxygen in the lungs and transport this through the whole body. In birds the lungs are working different then in man. The wings are compressing the lungs with every flying movement. And by every relaxation of the muscles the air is streaming to the air bags and then to the outside. We can this compare this with a jet stream motor. A flying bird is never out of breath. The haemoglobin is working much more efficient in birds than in man. Much more oxygen is bound and given free.

Proteins make movement possible. Muscles are structured from two components, two proteins who are co-operating in contraction and relaxation.

Bone structure and feathers are made out of proteins. When the feather is full grown, the quill and the barbs are becoming hard under influence of a protein, named keratin.

Proteins are albumen. The building materials come from the diet. It is clear that it is important that the diet contains enough albumen . The diet of seeds is sometimes very unbalanced. Complements are needed. Egg food supplemented by additional vitamins and minerals.

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Copyright 2004 by Bob Fregeres

E-mail: fregeres@bourkes-parakeet.nl

1/19/04