Description: This is a double picture of a cock rubino. The ino colour variety has no eumelanin left. This is giving expression to the white flights and tail. The red colour find fully expression because of the lack of eumelanin. The red is not rose but bright red. The amount of red on the wings is variable. Often there is a yellow stripe seen on the wing.
There are rubino, who are yellow in the secondaries and greater wing coverts and have a yellow rump also.
Development: The first rubino was developed by the combination of a lutino hen and a rose opaline cock. The purpose of this mating was to increase the red pigment in the plumage. Both colour varieties are the result of eumelanin mutation factors. The M-t+ factor (total loss of eumelanin) and the M-d factor (other distribution of the eumelanin). Both factors are sex-linked. The loss of eumelanin is complete.
The cross-table 45 gives all the information of combining the two melanin factors. Combining two sex-linked mutation factors is not so easy. A crossing over is needed to couple both factors on the same chromosome.
To increase the red colour some other solutions are suitable also. Combination of the lutino hen with a wildtype cock that shows a lot of red pigment on the belly and the margins of the wingcoverts can give a good result. All the young cocks are split for lutino. Mating this split cocks with a wildtype hen with a lot of red pigment can give hens with a lot of red pigment. May be a rubino. Combination the lutino hen with a red pastel cock can have the same result. An increased formation of red pigments. The adventage of the mating with wild-types is that no other mutation factor is introduced. The advantage of the combination of the lutino hen and a red pastel cock is that a sex-linked factor is combined with a recessive factor. This is much easier then combining two sex-linked factors.
In the mean time there are made combinations of lutino with the fallow, the pastel and the opaline. The combination with the opaline gives less rubino offspring then the other two combinations. The development of the rubino is not ready. Some rubino have to much yellow pigment on the wings. The side line effect is also that there are a lot of lutino with to much red in back and wings.
Name giving: Ino is the name for the characteristic of the eumelanin. Ino is the name for colour varieties that are missing all the melanin. In the plumage but in the eyes and horn parts as well. Albino, lutino and rubino are proper names for the three colourvarieties that are based upon a total loss of the eumelanin but with a different possession of psittacine pigments. Alba (Latin)=white, Luteus (Latin)=yellow, Ruber (Latin) = red. A ruby is a red precious stone. All colour varieties have the same mutation factor of the melanin (M-t+) The albino is the result of a combination of two mutation factors M-t+ and P-t. The rubino can be a combination of lutino and opaline, but not in all cases.
Remark: Not all rubino have the same genetic make-up. Some rubino has only the M-t+ factor (total loss of melanin) others are a combination of this factor with other mutation factors, most the M-d factor (distribution of opaline) but also the factors that cause the pastel (M-r factor) or the fallow colour variety (M-f factor). And this is the reason that the breeder not always can predict the outcomes when he is breeding with the rubino.